…高三英语一模试题解析「2」高考雅思march考试考研_网易订阅(高三英语教师年度考核个人总结)

…高三英语一模试题解析「2」高考雅思march考试考研_网易订阅(高三英语教师年度考核个人总结)缩略图


…高三英语一模试题解析「2」高考雅思march考试考研_网易订阅(高三英语教师年度考核个人总结)

c
few dishes taste better than a juicy cut of beef. one survey in 2014 found that steak was americans’ favorite food. unfortunately, by cooking so many cows, humans are cooking themselves, too.
the influence of food on greenhouse-gas(ghg)emissions(排放)can slip under the radar. in a survey in britain last year, the share of answerers saying that “producing plants and meat on farms” was a “significant contributor” to climate change was the lowest among ten listed activities. yet two papers published this year in nature food find that food, especially beef, creates more ghgs than previously thought.
this march researchers from the european commission and the un’s food and agriculture office released a study estimating that the global food system was responsible for 34% of ghg in 2015. 今年3月,来自欧盟委员会和联合国粮食和农业办公室的研究人员发布了一项研究,估计2015年全球粮食系统对34%的温室气体负有责任。the paper assigns the full impact of deforestation to the agriculture that results from it;includes emissions after food is sold(such as from waste and cooking);and counts non-food crops like cotton. but even when the authors took away emissions from sources like transport and packaging, they still found that agriculture generated 24% of ghgs.该论文将森林砍伐的全部影响分配给由此产生的农业;包括食品销售后的排放(如垃圾和烹饪);并计算了棉花等非粮食作物。但是,即使作者排除了运输和包装等来源的排放,他们仍然发现农业产生了24%的温室气体。
another recent paper, by xiaoming xu of the university of illinois and eight co-authors, allocates(分配)this impact among 171 crops and 16 animal products. it finds that animal-based foods account for 57% of agricultural ghgs, versus 29% for food from plants. beef and cow’s milk alone made up 34%. combined with the earlier study’s results, this implies that cattle produce 12% of ghg emissions.
relative to other food sources, beef is uniquely carbon-intensive. because cattle emit methane(甲烷)and need large grasslands that are often created by cutting more forests, they produce seven times as many ghgs per calorie of meat as pigs do. this makes beef a bigger share among foods than coal is among sources of electricity.
the simplest way to cut beef output is for people to eat other animals instead, or become vegetarians. but convincing people to give up their burgers is a tall order.
fortunately, lab-grown meats are moving from petri dishes(培养皿)to high-end restaurants. doing without beef from live cattle is hard to imagine, but the same was true of coal 100 years ago. lab-grown meat could play an essential role in slowing a climate disaster.
28.the underlined phrase in paragraph 2 can probably be replaced by____________.
a.be detected by radar
b.be ignored by people
c.be explained by experts
d.be controlled by government
29.what can we learn from the passage?
a.lab-grown meats will replace other meats in the future.
b.quitting steak may be an efficient way to reduce ghg.
c.producing beef generates more ghg than burning coal.
d.beef transport is the major contributor of ghg emissions.
30.the author mentions the coal in the last paragraph just to show____________.
a.the importance of both lab-grown beef and coal
b.the difficulty to produce the lab-grown meat
c.the necessity of beef from live cattle
d.the future of lab-grown beef

【答案】28.b;29.b;30.d;
【刘凯老师解析】【导语】这是一篇说明文。短文介绍了动物尤其是牛在整个食物链上对对温室气体排放的不良影响。呼吁人们吃其他动物,或者成为素食者,并指出实验室培育的肉类可能在减缓气候灾难方面发挥重要作用。
28.词句猜测题。根据第二段“in a survey in britain last year, the share of answerers saying that “producing plants and meat on farms” was a “significant contributor” to climate change was the lowest among ten listed activities.”(去年在英国进行的一项调查中,回答者认为”农场生产植物和肉类”是造成气候变化的”重要因素”的人数比例,在所列的10项活动中排名最低。)可知,食物对温室气体(ghg)排放的影响可能不人们忽视。所以划线词的意思是“被人们忽视”。故选b项。
29.推理判断题。根据倒数第三段“relative to other food sources, beef is uniquely carbon-intensive. because cattle emit methane(甲烷)and need large grasslands that are often created by cutting more forests, they produce seven times as many ghgs per calorie of meat as pigs do. this makes beef a bigger share among foods than coal is among sources of electricity.”(相对于其他食物来源,牛肉是唯一的碳密集型食品。因为牛会排放甲烷,而且需要大草原,而大草原往往是砍伐更多的森林造成的,所以每消耗一卡路里的肉,牛产生的温室气体是猪的七倍。这使得牛肉在食品中的份额比煤炭在电力来源中的份额还要大。)以及最后一段“lab-grown meat could play an essential role in slowing a climate disaster.”(实验室培育的肉类可能在减缓气候灾难方面发挥重要作用)由此判断出,不吃牛排可能是减少温室气体排放的有效方法。故选b项。
30.推理判断题。根据最后一段“fortunately, lab-grown meats are moving from petri dishes(培养皿)to high-end restaurants. doing without beef from live cattle is hard to imagine, but the same was true of coal 100 years ago.”(幸运的是,实验室培养的肉类,正从培养皿转移到高档餐厅。很难想象没有活牛的牛肉,但100年前的煤炭也是如此。)可知,作者在最后一段提到了煤炭,只是为了展示实验室培育牛肉的未来。故选d项。
d
the word “robot” was coined in 1920 by the czech playwright karel capek meaning fully functional servants. for most of their history, robots have been inelegant mechanical devices sitting out of sight in factories. things are starting to change, however. robots are leaving carefully managed industrial settings for everyday life and, in the coming years, will increasingly work in supermarkets, clinics, social care and much more.1920年,捷克剧作家卡雷尔·恰佩克创造了“机器人”一词,意为“功能齐全的仆人”。在机器人历史上的大部分时间里,它们都是坐在工厂里看不见的笨拙机械设备。然而,情况开始发生变化。机器人正在离开精心管理的工业环境,进入日常生活,在未来几年,机器人将越来越多地在超市、诊所、社会护理等领域工作。
they could not be coming at a better time. many industries are facing a shortage of labor—the demand for workers has recovered much faster than expected and some people have left the workforce, particularly in america. warehousing(仓库)has grown rapidly thanks to the e-commerce boom. robots are picking items off shelves and helping people pack a rising numbers of boxes. they are even beginning to move slowly along some pavements, delivering goods or food right to people’s doors. nowadays, short of workers but with lots of elderly folk to look after, having more robots to boost productivity would be a good thing.
and yet many people fear that robots will destroy jobs. a paper in 2013 by economists at oxford university was widely misinterpreted as meaning that 47% of american jobs were at risk of being automated.
in fact, concerns about mass unemployment are overblown. the evidence suggests robots will be ultimately beneficial for labor markets. japan and south korea have the highest robot usage rate but very strong workforces. a yale university study that looked at japanese manufacturing between 1978 and 2017 found that an increase of one robot unit per 1,000 workers boosted a company’s employment by 2.2%. research from the bank of korea found that robotization moved jobs away from manufacturing into other sectors, but that there was no decrease in overall vacancies.
for all that, the march of the robots will bring big changes to workplaces, too. one supposed example of “bad automation” is self-service checkouts in supermarkets, because they displace human workers. but robots could perform unpleasant work. checkout staff who retrain to help customers pick items from aisles(传送带)may find that dealing with people in need is more rewarding than spending all day swiping barcodes in front of lasers. in addition, as jobs change, workers should be helped to acquire new skills, including how to work with and manage the robots that will increasingly be their colleagues.
the potential gains from the robot revolution are huge. in capek’s play, the robots revolt(反抗)against their human masters and cause mass unemployment and worse. however, the beginnings of the world’s real robots have not matched capek’s assumption. so there is no need to concern about their future.
31.the author mentions the two researches in paragraph 4 to____________.
a.prove an argument
b.introduce an approach
c.present an assumption
d.highlight an experiment
32.what can we infer from the passage?
a.new skills will be acquired by workers with the help of robots.
b.the more robots are used, the greater employment it can bring.
c.robots will betray their human masters and cause worse problems.
d.checkout staff in supermarkets may be happier to do with people in need.
33.towards wide spread of robots, the author is____________
a.approved b.neutral
c.opposed d.doubtful
34.what’s the best title of the passage?
a.future risk: jobs being automated
b.robot revolution: causes of changes
c.workplace automation: rise of robots
d.robotization: solution to unemployment

【答案】31.a;32.d;33.a;34.b;
【刘凯老师解析】【导语】本文是一篇说明文。文章讲述了机器人进入日常生活后给人们带来的便利以及由此人们出现的担忧。
31.推理判断题。根据第四段“in fact, concerns about mass unemployment are overblown. the evidence suggests robots will be ultimately beneficial for labor markets. japan and south korea have the highest robot usage rate but very strong workforces.(事实上,对大规模失业的担忧被夸大了。有证据表明,机器人最终将有利于劳动力市场。日本和韩国的机器人使用率最高,但劳动力非常强大。)”可知,作者在第四段段首首先提出自己的观点,然后紧接着用耶鲁大学和韩国银行研究人员提供的数据支持了这一观点。故选a。
32.推理判断题。根据倒数第二段“one supposed example of “bad automation” is self-service checkouts in supermarkets, because they displace human workers. but robots could perform unpleasant work. checkout staff who retrain to help customers pick items from aisles(传送带)may find that dealing with people in need is more rewarding than spending all day swiping barcodes in front of lasers.(超市的自助结账是一个糟糕的自动化的例子,因为它们取代了人力。但是机器人可能会做出做令人不快的表现。收银员人员经过再培训, 助客户从传送带拿取商品,他们发现 助需要 助的人比只是单纯的在扫描仪扫码结账更能感觉到自己的努力有所回报)”可知,收银人员更愿意与人打交道,更愿意 助人。故选d。
33.推理判断题。根据第二段第一句“they could not be coming at a better time.(他们来得正是时候。)”,第四段“in fact, concerns about mass unemployment are overblown.(事实上,对大规模失业的担忧被夸大了。)”以及最后一段“the potential gains from the robot revolution are huge.(机器人革命带来的潜在收益是巨大的。)”可知,机器人进入生活
…高三英语一模试题解析「2」高考雅思march考试考研_网易订阅(高三英语教师年度考核个人总结)插图
以来,对于失业率的影响被夸大了,实际上给人类带来的收益的是巨大的,所以作者对机器人的大规模使用是认可的。故选a。
34.主旨大意题。根据最后一段“the potential gains from the robot revolution are huge. in capek’s play, the robots revolt(反抗)against their human masters and cause mass unemployment and worse. however, the beginnings of the world’s real robots have not matched capek’s assumption. so there is no need to concern about their future.(机器人革命带来的潜在收益是巨大的。恰佩克的假设中,机器人对抗人类并导致大规模失业。然而,世界上真正的机器人的诞生并不符合恰佩克的假设。所以没有必要担心他们的未来)”可知,本文论述了人类生活中得到的巨大收益及变革来源于机器人革命。故选b。

四、七选五
when we feel exhausted, our brains want to save mental energy by directing our focus to the most readily available, recallable information to help us make decisions quickly. we often do the thing that feels right, or rush to judgment without proper consideration. ___35___ it’s the reason why if you speak spanish, it’s much easier to learn italian than japanese. it’s also why many people think two single dollar bills are more valuable than a single two-dollar bill.
___36___ or, we are willing to move toward things that make us feel good and away from things that make us feel uncomfortable.
yet, we know hard actions can bring benefits -ones that may not be visible for some time. ___37___ maybe we do this because we have an insight or a requirement from doctor. when we go for that initial run, it doesn’t feel good. neither does the run after that. our muscles hurt. the money we’ve spent on the new hobby causes friction in our household. it continues to signal the reasons we should go back to the way it was before.
so, how do we do hard things when our brains are constantly telling us to avoid effort?
___38___ a2016 study found that when people are upset, they’ re less likely to try to do hard things. when they’re feeling upbeat, they’re more likely to take on the hard-but-essential tasks that ultimately make life better.
give our brains the right amount of autonomy. when we have a choice, our brains often want something easy. ___39___
doing things that feel uncomfortable and liking hard work can seem counterintuitive(反直觉的). but by understanding what’s going on in your brain, instead of depending on your first feeling, you can work toward completing hard things and manage your fears better.
a.think about starting a new exercise routine.
b.tackle hard things when we’re in a good mood.
c.accomplish hard things by having the supports of others.
d.the result is that many of us tend to do what simply feels right.
e.the brain does this because it’s much easier to process existing ideas than new ones.
f.but there are still some people keeping with it to the end regardless of these difficulties.
g.but we can reduce that response by challenging ourselves to be innovative and provide motives.

【答案】35.e;36.d;37.a;38.b;39.g;
【刘凯老师解析】【导语】这是一篇说明文。文章阐述了一种现象:我们的大脑总是倾向于遵循惯用思维和直觉、喜欢做出省事、让自己舒适的选择。但生活中总有些行之不易却大有裨益的事情,文章就如何克服大脑的惰性做好困难的事情给出了建议。

35.空白前句指出“we often do the thing that feels right, or rush to judgment without proper consideration.(我们往往会做感觉正确的事,或是不经过合理的考虑就匆匆下了结论)”即经验和惯有思维会影响我们的判断,e选项“大脑会这样做是因为处理已有的想法比处理新想法容易得多”中的does this正是指代前句中的行为,且符合后句所举的学过西班牙语的人再学意大利语要更容易这一例子的理由。故选e项。
36.空白后句以or开头,表达了“we are willing to move toward things that make us feel good and away from things that make us feel uncomfortable.(我们愿意去做让自己感觉良好的事,而远离那些让自己不适的事情)”,这显然是与上一段文意顺承的,or应作“或者”理解,即对空白句的另一种解释。d选项“结果就是我们许多人都倾向于直觉上正确的事”顺承前文给出论点,且与后句表达含义一致。故选d项。
37.空白前句指出“yet, we know hard actions can bring benefits -ones that may not be visible for some time.(不过,我们知道困难的行动会带来好处——这些好处可能短时间看不出来)”,a选项“想想开始一个新的锻炼日常”符合hard actions,且与下一句解释的“这样做是因为对自身的理解或是来自医生的要求”也是相符的。故选a项。
38.本段与下一段都是针对“how do we do hard things when our brains are constantly telling us to avoid effort?(当大脑不断地告诉我们不要努力时如何做好困难的事)”给出的建议。空白作为段首句,后面两句指出“a 2016 study found that when people are upset, they’ re less likely to try to do hard things. when they’re feeling upbeat, they’re more likely to take on the hard-but-essential tasks that ultimately make life better. (2016年的一项研究发现当人们情绪低落时,不太可能会尝试做困难的事。当他们感到积极向上时,更有可能承担那些困难但重要的任务,最终会让生活变得更好)”,言下之意即困难的事务更适合在情绪良好时去完成,这与b选项“当你情绪良好时,去处理困难的事务”表达的含义相符。故选b项。
39.本段与下一段都是针对“how do we do hard things when our brains are constantly telling us to avoid effort?(当大脑不断地告诉我们不要努力时如何做好困难的事)”给出的建议。前两句指出“give our brains the right amount of autonomy. when we have a choice, our brains often want something easy.(给我们的大脑一定的自主权。当我们要作出选择时,我们的大脑往往会想要简单些的)”,g选项“但我们可以通过挑战自我减少这种反应,从而变得更有创意、更富动力”与前文构成转折,其中的that response呼应前文大脑的反应,符合针对做好困难的事给出的建议。故选g项。

刘凯老师介绍
刘凯,男,蒙古族,黑龙江省齐齐哈尔人。本科为哈尔滨师范大学英语系,硕士为北京理工大学。2010年赴美国宾夕法尼亚大学交流学习;2013年美国亚利桑那大学访问学者;2015年澳大利亚新南威尔士大学esl研修;2018年加州理工学院语言学双学位获得者;2019年赴澳大利亚麦考瑞大学交流习;gre托福考试全球高分获得者;荣获长江商学院emba。
北京市优秀青年教师,北京市级重点高中示范校骨干教师,多年高中一线执教经验,高三年级把关教师,多次参与东城区模拟试题命题工作,教学理念先进,教学成果突出,多篇教学论文获市区级奖项。多篇文章发表在《中国教育报》《中国考试》《北京教育》等报刊上。多次参加高考阅卷工作,参与人民教育出版社、北京教育出版社、外研社等各类高考教学用书的编写工作,有丰富的备考经验,国际核心期刊发表多篇论文。
教育部课题研究员,参与国家十二五课题计划,并作出突出贡献,参与初中、高中各年级区级试题的命制,多次承担区级和市级研究课任务。北京市科技英语优秀指导教师,所带学生在各级英语口语、作文竞赛中多次获奖;将扎实的英语基本功和严谨的学术思想作为教学的基础,课堂上善于寓教于乐,信息量大,内容丰富,使学生在和谐的课堂气氛下欣赏英语、享受英语、掌握英语、运用英语。
2009-2012年期间,多次受邀在北京广播电台主持英语高考大纲解析及英语新课程改革节目,学术功底深厚,兼具偶像派与实力派特点,教风亲切洒脱,诙谐幽默,思维开阔,屡有奇思妙想,善于引导学生学以致用,对高考动向把握极其准确,深受学生和家长欢迎。尤其擅长英语语法和单词记忆法。
海外生活学习十年,社科人文类学科偏爱者;10年雅思教龄,知名教师培训师;指导上万考生快速冲刺雅思写作、阅读,平均分数7.5分;独创“段落清空”、极简化“针对检索式”阅读法等众多高效技法;每年雅思考试均在10次以上;均分8+;真题回忆准确度97%以上;贴近西式思路和语言指导学生写作;善于 助学生突破学术写作思维瓶颈。讲授科目有长难句、翻译、四六级考试、阅读和写作;在2014、2015、2017、2019四年考研中,接受其培训的所有考生中有近万名考生取得高分。带给学生的不只是考分的提高,更多的是对英语领悟和感知的突破。纯正的英音、独到的见解、睿智的思维和轻松幽默的语言,为其赢得了广大学生的认同和喜爱。
资深考研培训讲师;
英语四六级考试天团高级讲师;
雅思阅读、雅思写作培训主讲名师;
六级考试阅卷组成员;
深谙命题规律和解题套路,对英语的学习规律和方法见解独特。
呼吁国人学习英语的态度:
重复是记忆之母。
用听,用看,用心去触摸每个单词,你便会有好的记忆。
中国人要学好英语就要有一点点变态。
上课特点:课堂从不需点名,却无人缺席
教学理念:英语教师很幸运也有责任与学生一同叩响世界之门!

六、告知信/通知
44.假如你是李华,你的英国笔友jim听说你校3月份举行了“高考百日誓师”大会,对此他很感兴趣,请依据下列信息,给他回信,介绍此次活动。
1. 时间与地点;
2. 主要内容和目的;
3. 你的感受。
注意:1. 词数100左右;2. 开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。
提示词:the 100-day oath of college entrance examination 高考百日誓师
dear jim,
yours,
li hua

【答案】
dear jim,
i am very glad to receive your letter in which you showed your interest in the “the 100-day oath of college entrance examination” held by our school in march. here, i would like to tell you some details about this activity.
the event was held in the school football field on march 12, whose purpose was to stimulate students to prepare for the college entrance examination and relieve senior three students’ tension. the activity included a pledge by all the teachers and students of senior three and related communication activities for senior three students.
in my opinion, the activity was a great success. after the activity, the students studied harder than before.
yours,
li hua
【刘凯老师解析】【导语】本篇书面表达属于应用文。要求考生给英国笔友jim回信,给他介绍你校3月份举行的“高考百日誓师”大会的相关情况,内容包括:1. 时间与地点;2. 主要内容和目的;3. 你的感受。
【刘凯老师详解】
1.词汇积累
高兴的:glad→delighted
目的:purpose→aim
激励:stimulate→inspire
在某人看来:in one’s opinion→as far as sb. be concerned
2.句式拓展
合并简单句
原句:in my opinion, the activity was a great success. after the activity, the students studied harder than before.
拓展句:in my opinion, the activity was a great success, after which the students studied harder than before.
【刘凯老师点睛】【高分句型1】i am very glad to receive your letter in which you showed your interest in the “the 100-day oath of college entrance examination” held by our school in march. (运用了“介词+which”引导的限制性定语从句)
【高分句型2】the event was held in the school football field on march 12, whose purpose was to stimulate students to prepare for the college entrance examination and relieve senior three students’ tension. (运用了whose引导的非限制性定语从句)

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