2018考研英语新题型英语二与英语一的交集部分(2018考研英语一阅读翻译)

2018考研英语新题型英语二与英语一的交集部分(2018考研英语一阅读翻译)缩略图


2018考研英语新题型英语二与英语一的交集部分(2018考研英语一阅读翻译)

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2018考研英语新题型

英语二与英语一的交集部分

编讲:商志

主讲介绍:

● 考研英语应试教学法的旗帜性名师,中国考研英语单词教学第一人。15年来他独创的“考研英语传奇背词班”和“考研英语传奇作文班”, 助超过600万的考研英语学渣变考霸,使众多考生逆袭名校,轻松夺取考研英语高分,成为考研英语辅导界遥不可及的巅峰之作;

● 对学生用心负责,授课风趣幽默,富有激情,饱含心灵鸡汤,内容通俗易懂,直击考试本质,梳理考点知识点,专治英语学习过程中的各种疑难杂症,被广大学生尊称为“用生命在讲课的商欧巴”;

●主编的考研英语抢分系列辅导图书《考研英语蓝皮书》,被学生推崇为取得“英语高分的标配”。校园里多年来一直都流传着这样一句话:考研英语不选择商欧巴,就是考研路上最大的冒险!

part? one总的方法论

阅读理解b部分是在2005年才设置的,之前在考研英语试卷上没有这种题型,所以这种题型被称为新题型。也就是说,迄今为止,新题型一共只考过13年。其中英语一共考过13次(2005年到2017年)、英语二共考过8次(2010年到2017年)。

一、新题型是拉分的一道题。怎样针对性复习能确保拿到满分?

阅读理解b部分是整张试卷中最容易拿满分、最可能拿满分的一个题型。不幸的是,每年都有同学在这部分几乎拿不到分。

新题型部分共有4种题型,其中英语二仅考其中的题型三和题型四,英语一仅考其中的题型一、二、三。也就是说,英语一和英语二在新题型部分的交集就是题型三。

今天,我整理了新题型的题型三,把题型三的全部真题和大纲样题进行汇编,提供给大家,希望能有助于大家最后几十天的复习。

题型三的考试要求是:在一篇长度约500词的文章前有6~7个概括句或小标题。这些文字或标题分别是对文章中某一部分的概括或段落主旨。要求考生根据文章内容,从这6~7个选项中选出最恰当的5个标题填入文章的空白处。

英语一的13年真题中仅2007年和2016年考过这种题;

英语二的8年真题中2013、2015和2016这3年考的这种题型。

值得一提的是,题型三有一个大纲样题在历年考题中从未考过。这种题型的考试要求是:在一篇含有n个小标题或者副标题的文章后面有6个或7个论据或例子,要求为每个小标题或副标题匹配一个论据或例子。

二、商志老师为同学们指导考研并同学们的各种困惑和疑问的唯一方式是:新浪微博或者微信公众号———商志考研英语

新浪微博(商志考研英语)

?

微信公众号(商志考研英语)

?

抢分app二维码

?

part two题型三的2个大纲样题

样题一

directions:

you
are going to read a list of headings and a text about plagiarism in the academic community. choose the most suitable
heading from the list a–f for each numbered paragraph (41–45). the first and
last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. there is one extra heading which
you do not need to use. mark your answers on answer sheet 1. (10 points)

[a]
what to do as a student?

[b]
various definitions of plagiarism

[c]
ideas should always be sourced

[d]
ignorance can be forgiven

[e]
plagiarism is equivalent to theft

[f]
the consequences of plagiarism

scholars, writers and teachers in the
modern academic community have strong feelings about acknowledging the use of
another person’s ideas. in the english-speaking world, the term plagiarism is
used to label the practice of not giving credit for the source of one’s ideas.
simply stated, plagiarism is” the wrongful appropriation or purloining,
and publication as one’s own of the ideas, or the expression of ideas of
another.”

41.____________________.

the penalties for
plagiarism vary from situation to situation. in many universities, the
punishment may range from failure in a particular course to expulsion from the
university. in the literary world, where writers are protected from plagiarism
by international copyright laws, the

?penalty may range from a small fine to
imprisonment and a ruined career. protection of scholars and writers, through
the copyright laws and through the social pressures of the academic and
literary communities, is a relatively recent concept. such social pressures and
copyright laws require writers to give scrupulous attention to documentation of
their sources.

42.____________________.

students, as inexperienced scholars
themselves, must avoid various types of plagiarism by being self-critical in
their use of other scholars’ ideas and by giving appropriate credit for the
source of borrowed ideas and words, otherwise dire consequences may occur.
there are at least three classifications of plagiarism as it is revealed in
students’ inexactness in identifying sources properly. they are plagiarism by
accident, by ignorance, and by intention.

43. ____________________.

plagiarism by accident, or oversight,
sometimes is the result of the writer’s inability to decide or remember where
the idea came from. he may have read it long ago, heard it in a lecture since
forgotten, or acquired it second-hand or third-hand from discussions with
colleagues. he may also have difficulty in deciding whether the idea is such
common knowledge that no reference to the original source is needed. although
this type of plagiarism must be guarded against, it is the least serious and,
if lessons learned, can be exempt from being severely punished.

44. ____________________.

plagiarism through ignorance is simply a
way of saying that inexperienced writers often do not know how or when to
acknowledge their sources. the techniques for documentation -note-taking,
quoting, footnoting, listing bibliography, are easily learned and can prevent
the writer from making unknowing mistakes or omissions in his references.
although there is no copyright in news, or in ideas, only in the expression of
them, the writer cannot plead ignorance when his sources for ideas are
challenged.

45. ____________________.

the most serious kind of academic thievery
is plagiarism by intention. the writer, limited by his laziness and dullness,
copies the thoughts and language of others and claims them for his own. he not
only steals, he tries to deceive the reader into believing the ideas are
original. such words as immoral, dishonest, offensive, and despicable are used
to describe the practice of plagiarism by intention.

the opposite of plagiarism is
acknowledgement. all mature and trustworthy writers make use of the ideas of
others but they are careful to acknowledge their indebtedness to their sources.
students, as developing scholars, writers, teachers, and professional leaders,
should recognize and assume their responsibility to document all sources from
which language and thoughts are borrowed. other members of the profession will
not only respect the scholarship, they will admire the humility and honesty.

[试题分析]

这篇文章的内容是关于学术抄袭。整篇文章层次分明,语言简练。通读全文,我们知道作者主要介绍了什么是抄袭,它的后果,以及应该怎样做。

文章第1段给抄袭下了定义。接着,第2段,也就是要选择小标题的第l段说明了抄袭在不同情况下会受到不同的处罚。在6个选项中,[f]项(抄袭的后果)最贴切。

下1段又说到,学生们应该避免抄袭。而造成抄袭又可以分为3种情况:偶然、无知和故意。接下来的几段就是对这3种情况的进一步介绍。了解了这些段落的大意,考生就可以选出剩下的答案了。也许考生在43题和44题上会选错,看到44题所处段落中有“ignorance”这个词就选了 [d]。但是该段强调的是作者都应该学会标注引用的来源,如果没有标注,免不了要受到抨击。 43题所处段落中说,这种抄袭的情况是最轻的一种,是可以饶恕的,所以[d]选项最贴切。

样题二

directions:

you
are going to read a text about the tips
on resume writing, followed by a list of examples. choose the best example
from the list a–f for each numbered subheading (41–45). there is one extra
example which you do not need to use. mark your answers on answer sheet 1. (10
points)

the main purpose of a resume is to
convince an employer to grant you an interview. there are two kinds. one is the
familiar “tombstone” that lists where you went to school and where
you’ve worked in chronological order. the other is what i call the
“functional” resume — descriptive, fun to read, unique to you and
much more likely to land you an interview.

it’s handy to have a “tombstone”
for certain occasions. but prospective employers throw away most of those
unrequested “tombstone” lists, preferring to interview the quick
rather than the dead.

what follows are tips on writing a
functional resume that will get read —– a resume that makes you come alive
and look interesting to employers.

41.
put yourself first:

in order to write a resume others will
read with enthusiasm, you have to feel important about yourself.

42.
sell what you can do, not who you are:

practice translating your personality
traits, character, accomplishments and achievements into skill areas. there are
at least five thousand skill areas in the world of work.

toot
your own horn!

many people clutch when asked to think
about their abilities. some think they have none at all! but everyone does, and
one of yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch — if
only you show it.

43.
be specific, be concrete, and be brief!

remember that “brevity is the best
policy.”

44.
turn bad news into good:

everybody has had disappointments in work.
if you have to mention yours, look for the positive side.

45.
never apologize:

if you’re returning to the work force
after fifteen years as a parent, simply write a short paragraph ( summary of
background) in place of a chronology of experience. don’t apologize for working
at being a mother; it’s the hardest job of all. if you have no special training
or higher education, just don’t mention education.

the secret is to think about the self
before you start writing about yourself. take four or five hours off, not
necessarily consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your
life, on or off the job, that made you feel effective. don’t worry at first
about what it all means. study the list and try to spot patterns. as you study
your list, you will come closer to the meaning: identifying your marketable
skills. once you discover patterns, give names to your cluster of
accomplishments (leadership skills, budget management skills, child development
skills etc. ) try to list at least three accomplishments under the same skills
heading. now start writing your resume as if you mattered. it may take four
drafts or more, and several weeks, before you’re ready to show it to a stranger
(friends are usually too kind) for a reaction. when you’re satisfied, send it
to a printer; a printed resume is far superior to photocopies. it shows an
employer that you regard job hunting as serious work, worth doing right.

isn’t that the kind of person you’d want working
for you?

[a] a woman who lost her job as a
teacher’s aide due to a cutback in government funding wrote:” principal of
elementary school cited me as the only teacher’s aide she would rehire if
government funds became available.”

[b]one resume i received included the
following: “invited by my superior to straighten out our organization’s
accounts receivable. set up orderly repayment schedule, reconciled accounts
weekly, and improved cash flow 100 percent. rewarded with raise and promotion.”
notice how this woman focuses on results, specifies how she accomplished them,
and mentions her reward — all in 34 words.

[c] for example, if you have a flair for
saving, managing and investing money, you have money management skills.

[d]an acquaintance complained of being
biased when losing an opportunity due to the statement “ready to learn
though not so well educated”.

[e] one of my former colleagues, for
example, wrote three resumes in three different sty
2018考研英语新题型英语二与英语一的交集部分(2018考研英语一阅读翻译)插图
les in order to find out
which was more preferred. the result is, of course, the one that highlights
skills and education background.

[f]a woman once told me about a cash-flow
crisis her employer had faced. she agreed to work without pay for three months
until business improved. her reward was her back pay plus a 20 percent bonus. i
asked why that marvelous story wasn’t in her resume. she answered, “it
wasn’t important.” what she was really saying of course was “i’m not
important.”

试题分析

这是一篇说明如何写好个人简历的文章。文章语言风趣幽默,例子生动贴切,是一篇可读性很强的美文。题目中把例子从文章中剥离出来,要求考生能将其还原,恢复美文本色。

首先,我们要通读全文,了解大意。作者在文中强调好的简历应该是“functional”,应该是读起来有趣,具有个性的。在文章中,作者给出了具体的招数。每个招数都有小标题,解释和举例。在这儿,考生应该明白的是,英语文章中的小标题不一定等同于论点或段落总结句。小标题一般都较短,较简洁,有些小标题为了吸引读者注意力,用词较夸张,或者只突出文章的一方面。所以考生在做题时,不能慌慌张张地看了小标题就去找答案。应该结合正文理解观点的含义。

第一点,“put yourself first”。字面意思是把自己往前放。什么意思呢?下面的句子进行了解释,“要想让自己的简历使读的人充满热情,那么你首先就要觉得自己是个人物”。选项中哪个能进一步说明这一点呢?论证方法是多样的。作者举例说明时,可能从正面角度,也可能从反面角度。[f]项就是从反面说明了第一个观点。作者通过例子说明,不要认为自己做过的事情不值一提,瞧不起自己的人别人又怎么会重视呢?

第二点,“sell what you can do,not who you are”。要强调能力而不是性格。下面的文字进一步说明了,“要学会把自己的个性和成就诠释成具体的技能,世界上有至少5000种技能”
(意思是,你总能找到一种自己拥有的技能)。文后的例子中只有[c]项最贴切,“例如,如果你有节约、投资、管理钱财的天分,那么你拥有理财的能力。”

第三点,“be specific,be concrete,and
briefly!”一言以蔽之:简洁。哪个选项说明了这一点呢?[b)项以一个成功的例子说明了这点,一位女士仅用了34个词就把重点说明白了。

第四点,“turn bad news into good”(将坏消息变成好消息)。这不是要让人颠倒黑白,下面解释道:“每个人在工作中总有不尽如人意的地方。如果要提到这些事,那么从积极、正面的角度去看。”[a]选项就是一个正面的例子。一个女助教因为政府缩减资金而被解雇。这似乎不大光彩,但是这位女士谈起此事时却用了另一个角度,“校长说了,如果政府的资金够的话,她第一个重聘的就是我”,字里行间洋溢着自信。

第五点,“never apologize”(不要道歉)。下面的文字举例说明了,要扬长避短。每个人都有短处,没有必要为自己的短处羞愧。求职就是要让雇主看到自己的闪光点,个人简历不是进行道歉的地方。[d]项以一个失败的例子说明了这一点:作者的一位朋友说他求职时遭到了歧视,因为他的简历中写了“好学,但教育程度不高”。

part three题型三全部真题

directions:

read the following texts and answer the
questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list a-g for each
of the numbered paragraphs (41-45). there are two extra subheadings. mark your
answers on the answer sheet. (10 points)

[2007年英语一真题]

[a]
set a good example for your kids

[b]
build your kids’ work skills

[c] place time limits on leisure activities

[d] talk about the future on a regular basis

[e] help kids develop coping strategies

[f] help your kids figure out who they are

[g] build your kids’ sense of responsibility

how
can a parent help ?

mothers and fathers can do a lot to ensure a safe
landing in early adulthood for their kids. even if a job’s starting salary
seems too small to satisfy an emerging adult’s need for rapid content, the
transition from school to work can be less of a setback if the start-up adult
is ready for the move. here are a few measures, drawn from my book ready or not, here life comes, that
parents can take to prevent what i call “work-life unreadiness”:

41.____________________

you can start this process when they are 11 or 12.
periodically review their emerging strengths and weaknesses with them and work
together on any shortcomings, like difficulties in communicating well or
collaborating. also, identify the kinds of interests they keep coming back to,
as these offer clues to the careers that will fit them best.

42.____________________

kids need a range of authentic role models —– as
opposed to members of their clique, pop stars and vaunlted athletes. have
regular dinner-table discussions about people the family knows and how they got
where they are. discuss the joys and downsides of your own career and encourage
your kids to form some ideas about their own future. when asked what they want
to do, they should be discouraged from saying “i have no idea.” they can change
their minds 200 times, but having only a foggy view of the future is of little
good.

43.____________________

?? teachers are responsible for teaching kids
how to learn; parents should be responsible for teaching them how to work.
assign responsibilities around the house and make sure homework deadlines are
met. encourage teenagers to take a part-time job. kids need plenty of practice
delaying gratification and deploying effective organizational skills, such as
managing time and setting priorities.

44.____________________

?? playing video games encourages immediate
content. and hours of watching tv shows with canned laughter only teaches kids
to process information in a passive way. at the same time, listening through
earphones to the same monotonous beats for long stretches encourages kids to
stay inside their bubble instead of pursuing other endeavors. all these
activities can prevent the growth of important communication and thinking
skills and make it difficult for kids to develop the kinds of sustained
concentration they will need for most jobs.

45.____________________

? they should know how to deal with setbacks,
stresses and feelings of inadequacy. they should also learn how to solve
problems and resolve conflicts, ways to brainstorm and think critically.
discussions at home can help kids practice doing these things and help them
apply these skills to everyday life situations.

??
what about the son or daughter who is grown but seems to be struggling
and wandering aimlessly through early adulthood? parents still have a major
role to play, but now it is more delicate. they have to be careful not to come
across as disappointed in their child. they should exhibit strong interest and
respect for whatever currently interests their fledging adult (as naive or ill
conceived as it may seem) while becoming a partner in exploring options for the
future. most of all, these new adults must feel that they are respected and
supported by a family that appreciates them.

[2016年英语一真题]

[a]
create a new image of yourself

[b] have
confidence in yourself

[c] decide
if the time is right

[d] understand
the context

[e] work
with professionals

[f] make
it efficient

[g] know
your goals

no matter how formal or informal
the work environment, the way you present yourself has an impact. this is
especially true in first impressions. according to research from princeton university, people assess your
competence, trustworthiness, and likeability in just a tenth of a second,
solely based on the way you look.

the difference between today’s
workplace and the “dress for success” era is that the range of options is so
much broader. norms have evolved and fragmented. in some settings, red sneakers
or dress t-shirts can convey status; in others not so much. plus, whatever
image we present is magnified by social-media services like linkedin. chances
are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago.
millennials, it seems, face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet
the most conscious of style and personal branding. it can be confusing.

so how do we navigate this? how do
we know when to invest in an upgrade? and what’s the best way to pull off one
that enhances our goals? here are some tips:

41.

as an executive coach, i’ve seen
image upgrades be particularly helpful during transitions—when looking for a new job, stepping into a
new or more public role, or changing work environments. if you’re in a period
of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. if you’re
not sure, ask for honest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and
professionals. look for cues about how others perceive you. maybe there’s no
need for an upgrade and that’s ok.?

42.

get clear on what impact you’re
hoping to have. are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? for one
person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their
professional image. for another, it may be to be perceived as more
approachable, or more modern and stylish. for someone moving from finance to
advertising, maybe they want to look more “soho.”
(it’s ok to use characterizations like that.)

43.

look at your work environment like
an anthropologist. what are the norms of your environment? what conveys status?
who are your most important audiences? how do the people you respect and look
up to present themselves? the better you understand the cultural context, the
more control you can have over your impact.

44.

enlist the support of
professionals and share with them your goals and context. hire a personal
stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like j·crew·try
a hair stylist instead of a barber. work with a professional photographer
instead of your spouse or friend. it’s not as expensive as you might think.

45.

the point of a style upgrade isn’t
to become more vain or to spend more time fussing over what to wear. instead,
use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. pick a standard work
uniform or a few go-to options. buy all your clothes at once with a stylist
instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing at a time.

[2015年英语二真题]

[a] you are not alone

[b] experience helps
you grow

[c] pave your own unique path

[d] most of your fears
are unreal

[e] think about the present
moment

[f] don’t fear responsibility for your life

[g] there are many things to be grateful for

some old truths to help you overcome tough times

unfortunately, life is not a bed of roses. we
are going through life facing sad experiences. moreover, we are grieving
various kinds of loss: a friendship, a romantic relationship or a house. hard
times may hold you down at what usually seems like the most inopportune time,
but you should remember that they won’t last forever.

when our time of mourning is over, we press
forward, stronger with a greater understanding and respect for life.
furthermore, these losses make us mature and eventually move us toward future
opportunities for growth and happiness. i want to share these old truths i’ve
learned along the way.

41. ______________________________

fear is both useful and harmful. this normal
human reaction is used to protect us by signaling danger and preparing us to
deal with it. unfortunately, people create inner barriers with a help of
exaggerating fears. my favorite actor will smith once said, “fear is not real.
it is a product of thoughts you create. do not misunderstand me. danger is very
real. but fear is a choice.” i do completely agree that fears are just the
product of our luxuriant imagination.

42. ______________________________

if you are surrounded by
problems and cannot stop thinking about the past, try to focus on the present
moment. many of us are weighed down by the past or anxious about the future.
you may feel guilt over your past, but you are poisoning the present with the
things and circumstances you cannot change. value the present moment and
remember how fortunate you are to be alive. enjoy the beauty of the world
around and keep the eyes open to see the possibilities before you. happiness is
not a point of future and not a moment from the past, but a mindset that can be
designed into the present.

43. ______________________________

sometimes it is easy to feel bad because you
are going through tough times. you can be easily caught up by life problems
that you forget to pause and appreciate the things you have. only strong people
prefer to smile and value their life instead of crying and complaining about
something.

44. ______________________________

no matter how isolated you might feel and how
serious the situation is, you should always remember that you are not alone.
try to keep in mind that almost everyone respects and wants to help you if you
are trying to make a good change in your life, especially your dearest and
nearest people. you may have a circle of friends who provide constant good
humor, help and companionship. if you have no friends or relatives, try to
participate in several online communities, full of people who are always
willing to share advice and encouragement.

45. ______________________________

today many people find it difficult to trust
their own opinion and seek balance by gaining objectivity from external
sources. this way you devalue your opinion and show that you are incapable of
managing your own life. when you are struggling to achieve something important
you should believe in yourself and be sure that your decision is the best. you
live in your skin, think your own thoughts, have your own values and make your
own choices.

[2013年英语二真题]

[a] live like a peasant????????????

[b] balance your diet

[c] shopkeepers are your
friends?????

[d] remember to treat
yourself

[e] stick to what you need??????????

[f] planning is everything

[g] waste not, want not

the hugely popular blog the skint foodie chronicles
how tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. after bills,
tony has £60 a week to spend, £40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he
was earning £130,000 a year working in corporate communications and eating at
london’s benefit restaurants'” at least twice a week. then his marriage
failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious. “the community
mental health team saved my life. and i felt like that again, to a certain
degree, when people responded to the blog so well. it gave me the validation
and confidence that i’d lost. but it’s still a day-by-day thing.” now he’s
living in a council flat and fielding offers from literary agents. he’s feeling
positive, but he’ll carry on blogging – not about eating as cheaply as you can
——- “there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any
money to spend on food” ——– but eating well on a budget. here’s his
advice for economical foodies.

41._____________________

impulsive spending isn’t an
option, so plan your week’s menu in advance, making shopping lists for your
ingredients in their exact quantities. i have an excel template for a week of
breakfast, lunch and dinner. stop laughing: it’s not just cost effective but
helps you balance your diet. it’s also a good idea to shop daily instead of
weekly, because, being-human, you’ll sometimes change your mind about what you
fancy.

42____________________________________________________________

??? this is where supermarkets and the
anonymity come in handy. with them, there’s not the same embarrassment as when
buying one carrot in a little greengrocer. and if you plan properly, you’ll
know that you only need, say, 350g of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon,
not whatever weight is pre-packed in the supermarket chiller.

43_________

?? you may proudly claim to only have frozen
peas in the freezer – that’s not good enough. mine is filled with leftovers,
bread, stock, meat and fish. planning ahead should eliminate wastage, but if
you have surplus vegetables you’ll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits
threatening to “go off’ will be cooked or juiced.

44___________________________________

?? everyone says this, but it really is a top
tip for frugal eaters. shop at butchers, delis and fish-sellers regularly, even
for small things, and be super friendly. soon you’ll feel comfortable asking if
they’ve any knuckles of ham for soups and stews, or beef bones, chicken
carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than not, they’ll let you
have for free.????

45__________________

you won’t be eating out a lot, but save
your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good
restaurant – £1.75 a week for three months gives you £21 – more than”
enough for a three-course lunch at michelin-starred arbutus. it’s £16.95 there
– or £12.99 for a large pizza from domino’s: i know which i’d rather eat.

[2016年英语二真题]

[a] be silly
?

[b] have fun
?

[c] express
your emotions ?

[d] don’t
overthink it

[e] be easily
pleased

[f]?notice
things

[g] ask for
help

act your shoe size, not your age.

  as adults,
it seems that we’re constantly pursuing happiness, often with mixed results.
yet children appear to have it down to an art—and for the most part they don’t
need self-help books or therapy. instead, they look after their wellbeing
instinctively and usually more effectively than we do as grownups. perhaps it’s
time to learn a few lessons from them.

41.

what does a
child do when he’s sad? he cries. when he’s angry? he shouts. scared? ?probably a bit of both. as we grow up, we
learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don’t dictate our
behaviours, which is in many ways a good thing. but too often we take this
process too far and end up suppressing emotions, especially negative ones.
that’s about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us
ill. what we need to do is find a way to acknowledge and express what we feel
appropriately, and then—again, like children—move on.

42.

a couple of
christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was 9 years old at the time, got
a superman t-shirt for christmas. it cost less than a fiver but she was
overjoyed, and couldn’t stop talking about it. too often we believe that a new
job, bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow
us to finally be content, but the reality is these things have little lasting
impact on our happiness levels. instead, being grateful for small things every
day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.

43.

have you ever
noticed how much children laugh? if we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we
would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies, increase good hormones like
endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and ever have a greater chance of
fighting off infection. all of which would, of course, have a positive effect
on our happiness levels.

44.

the problem with
being a grownup is that there’s an awful lot of serious stuff to deal
with-work, mortgage payments, figuring out what to cook for dinner. but as
adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and
it’s important that we schedule in time to enjoy the thing we love. those
things might be social, sporting, creative or completely random (dancing around
the living room, anyone?)—it doesn’t matter, so long as they’re enjoyable, and
not likely to have negative side effects, such as drinking too much alcohol or
going on a wild spending spree if you’re on a tight budget.

45.

having said all
of the above, it’s important to add that we shouldn’t try too hard to be happy.
scientists tell us this can back fire and actually have a negative impact on
our wellbeing. as the chinese philosopher chuang tzu is reported to have said: “happiness
is the absence of striving for happiness.” and in that, once more, we need to
look to the example of our children, to whom happiness is not a goal but a
natural byproduct of the way they live.

新题型补充材料 :
实例(论据)匹配题
directions:
you are going to read a text about the tips on resume
writing, followed by a list of examples. choose the best example from the list
a–f for each numbered subheading (41–45). there is one extra example which
you do not need to use. mark your answers on answer sheet 1. (10 points)

the main purpose of a resume
is to convince an employer to grant you an interview. there are two kinds. one
is the familiar “tombstone” that lists where you went to school and
where you’ve worked in chronological order. the other is what i call the
“functional” resume — descriptive, fun to read, unique to you and
much more likely to land you an interview.

it’s handy to have a
“tombstone” for certain occasions. but prospective? employers throw away most of those
unrequested “tombstone” lists, preferring to interview the quick
rather than the dead.

what follows are tips on
writing a functional resume that will get read —– a resume that makes you
come alive and look interesting to employers.

41.???????
put yourself first:
in order to write a resume others will read with
enthusiasm, you have to feel important about yourself.

42.???????
sell what you can do, not who you are:
practice translating your personality traits,
character, accomplishments and achievements into skill areas. there are at
least five thousand skill areas in the world of work.

toot your own horn!
many people clutch when asked to think about their
abilities. some think they have none at all! but everyone does, and one of
yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch — if only you
show it.

43.???????
be specific, be concrete, and be brief!
remember that
“brevity is the best policy.”

44.??????????
turn bad news into good:
everybody has had disappointments in work. if you
have to mention yours, look for the positive side.

45.???????
never apologize:
if you’re returning to the work force after fifteen
years as a parent, simply write a short paragraph ( summary of background) in
place of a chronology of experience. don’t apologize for working at being a
mother; it’s the hardest job of all. if you have no special training or higher
education, just don’t mention education.

the secret is to think about the self before you
start writing about yourself. take four or five hours off, not necessarily
consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your life, on or off
the job, that made you feel effective. don’t worry at first about what it all
means. study the list and try to spot patterns. as you study your list, you
will come closer to the meaning: identifying your marketable skills. once you
discover patterns, give names to your cluster of accomplishments (leadership
skills, budget management skills, child development skills etc. )? try to list at least three accomplishments
under the same skills heading. now start writing your resume as if you
mattered. it may take four drafts or more, and several weeks, before you’re
ready to show it to a stranger (friends are usually too kind) for a reaction.
when you’re satisfied, send it to a printer; a printed resume is far superior
to photocopies. it shows an employer that you regard job hunting as serious
work, worth doing right.

isn’t that the kind of person you’d want working
for you?

[a] a woman who lost her
job as a teacher’s aide due to a cutback in government funding wrote:”
principal of elementary school cited me as the only teacher’s aide she would
rehire if government funds became available.”

[b]one resume i received
included the following: “invited by my superior to straighten out our
organization’s accounts receivable. set up orderly repayment schedule,
reconciled accounts weekly, and improved cash flow 100 percent. rewarded with
raise and promotion.” notice how this woman focuses on results, specifies
how she accomplished them, and mentions her reward — all in 34 words.

[c] for example, if you
have a flair for saving, managing and investing money, you have money
management skills.

[d]an acquaintance
complained of being biased when losing an opportunity due to the statement
“ready to learn though not so well educated”.

[e] one of my former
colleagues, for example, wrote three resumes in three different styles in order
to find out which was more preferred. the result is, of course,? the one that highlights skills and education
background.

[f]a woman once told me
about a cash-flow crisis her employer had faced. she agreed to work without pay
for three months until business improved. her reward was her back pay plus a 20
percent bonus. i asked why that marvelous story wasn’t in her resume. she? answered, “it wasn’t important.”
what she was really saying of course was “i’m not important.”

这是一篇说明如何写好个人简历的文章。文章语言风趣幽默,例子生动贴切,是一篇可 读性很强的美文。题目中把例子从文章中剥离出来,要求考生能将其还原,恢复美文本色。

首先,我们要通读全文,了解大意。作者在文中强调好的简历应该是“functional”,应该 是读起来有趣,具有个性的。在文章中,作者给出了具体的招数。每个招数都有小标题,解 释和举例。在这儿,考生应该明白的是,英语文章中的小标题不一定等同于论点或段落总结 句。小标题一般都较短,较简洁,有些小标题为了吸引读者注意力,用词较夸张,或者只突 出文章的一方面。所以考生在做题时,不能慌慌张张地看了小标题就去找答案。应该结合正 文理解观点的含义。

第一点,“put yourself first”。字面意思是把自己往前放。什么意思呢?下面的句子进行 了解释,“要想让自己的简历使读的人充满热情,那么你首先就要觉得自己是个人物”。选项 中哪个能进一步说明这一点呢?论证方法是多样的。作者举例说明时,可能从正面角度,也 可能从反面角度。[f]项就是从反面说明了第一个观点。作者通过例子说明,不要认为自己 做过的事情不值一提,瞧不起自己的人别人又怎么会重视呢?

第二点,“sell what you can do,not who you are”。要强调能力而不是性格。下面的文字 进一步说明了,“要学会把自己的个性和成就诠释成具体的技能,世界上有至少 5000 种技能” (意思是,你总能找到一种自己拥有的技能)。文后的例子中只有[c]项最贴切,“例如,如果 你有节约、投资、管理钱财的天分,那么你拥有理财的能力。”

第三点,“be specific,be concrete,and briefly!”一言以蔽之:简洁。哪个选项说明了这 一点呢?[b)项以一个成功的例子说明了这点,一位女士仅用了 34 个词就把重点说明白了。 第四点,“turn bad news into good”(将坏消息变成好消息)。这不是要让人颠倒黑白,下 面解释道:“每个人在工作中总有不尽如人意的地方。如果要提到这些事,那么从积极、正 面的角度去看。”[a] 选项就是一个正面的例子。一个女助教因为政府缩减资金而被解雇。这 似乎不大光彩,但是这位女士谈起此事时却用了另一个角度,“校长说了,如果政府的资金够的话,她第一个重聘的就是我”,字里行间洋溢着自信。第五点,“never apologize”(不要道歉)。下面的文字举例说明了,要扬长避短。每个人 都有短处,没有必要为自己的短处羞愧。求职就是要让雇主看到自己的闪光点,个人简历不 是进行道歉的地方。[d]项以一个失败的例子说明了这一点:作者的一位朋友说他求职时遭 到了歧视,因为他的简历中写了“好学,但教育程度不高”。

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?????

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