2005年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第一篇】

2005年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第一篇】缩略图


2005年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第一篇】

passage1注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。????????everybody loves a fat pay rise. yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking偷懒, you might even be outraged. such behaviour is regarded as, with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of thisfinely developed sense of grievance. but a study by sarah brosnan and frans de waal of emory university in atlanta, georgia, which has just been published in nature, suggests that it is all too m, as well.

1.slack偷懒,lack缺乏,=be short of
2.grievance 谐音“格林问死”,因为格林对自己非常重要的人死因至今不明,所以怀着愤愤不平的心情,一定要找仇家问个明白,所以就诞生出“格林问死”。

????????the researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin ms. they look cute. they are good-natured, co-operative creatures, andthey share their food readily. above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of s study. the researchersspent two years teaching their ms to exchange tokens for food. normally, the ms were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. however, when two ms were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.

1.brown棕色 brow眉毛:区别记忆:brown谐音:不老翁,不倒翁。家里有个棕色的不倒翁。 brow谐音:不劳。他眉头一皱,说:不劳烦你了。
2.ready事先准备好的 readily乐意地:内联记忆:因为这是我事先准备好的,所以很乐意给你。
3.take过去式took,过去分词taken 而token代币,在某种程度上,可以说是take的过去分词taken改a为o变成的新单词。token内联记忆:便于携带,并且可用于交易的代币,叫token。因为人类早期是物物交换,为了携带方便,所以出现了使用币。token是为了纪念携带方便,故用taken的过去分词的变形。

????????in the world of capuchins grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers). so when one m was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. and if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber. indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber(without an actual m to eat it) was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin.
????????the researchers suggest that capuchin ms, like humans, are guided by social emotions. in the wild, they are a co-operative, group-living species. such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone. refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. however, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.

1.righteous 从词面上看,就是权利均等的。故righteous公平公正的。
2.indignation=文章中的outraged。

一、文章结构分析
这是一篇议论文。这是一篇关于动物行为与动物心理的文章。
文章首段通过首先介绍人憎恨不公平的行为现象引出猴子和人一样也有这种情感,
第二、三、四段通过一些研究者对雌性猴子的行为进行了研究论证具体论证了这一观点。
最后一段在以上研究的基础进一步对这一结论做出了说明。
21. in the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by.
[a] posing a contrast
[b] justifying an assumption
[c] making a comparison
[d] explaining a phenomenon
21.在文章开始段落,作者引入主题的方法是。
【a】提出一个对比
【b】证明一种假定是正确的
【c】进行类比
【d】解释一种现象
22. the statement(last line, paragraph i) implies that.
[a] ms are also outraged by slack rivals
[b] resenting unfairness is also ms nature
[c] ms, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other
[d] no animals other than ms can develop such emotions
22.(第一段最后一行)的句子“it is all too m”意味着。
【a】猴子也会被懒散的对手激怒
【b】怨恨不公平也是猴子的天性
【c】和人一样,猴子也往往相互妒忌
【d】除了猴子,没有其他动物可以产生这样的情感
23. female capuchin ms were chosen for the research most probably because they are.
[a] more inclined to weigh what they get
[b] attentive to researchers instructions
[c] nice in both appearance and temperament
[d] more generous than their male companions
23.雌卷尾猴被选来做研究最有可能是因为它们。
【a】更喜欢权衡比较她们所得到的东西
【b】注意听从研究者的指令
【c】外表和性情都很好
【d】比雄卷尾猴慷慨
24. dr. brosnan and dr. de waal have eventually found in their study that the ms.
[a] prefer grapes to cucumbers
[b] can be taught to exchange things
[c] will not be co-operative if feeling cheated
[d] are unhappy when separated from others
24.布卢斯南博士和德·瓦尔博士最终在研究中发现猴子。
【a】喜欢葡萄甚于喜欢黄瓜
【b】可以被教会交换物品
【c】如果觉得受了欺骗就不会合作
【d】如果与其他猴子分开就会不高兴
25. what can we infer from the last paragraph?
[a] ms can be trained to develop social emotions.
[b] human indignation evolved from an uncertain source.
[c] animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do.
[d] cooperation among ms remains stable only in the wild.
25.根据最后一段我们可以推知什么?
【a】通过训练,猴子可以形成社会情感。
【b】人类的愤怒源自什么不得而知。
【c】动物通常像人类一样公开表达其情感。
【d】猴子间的合作只有在野外才能保持稳定。
二、核心词汇与超纲词汇
1.a fat pay rise 丰厚的加薪
2.vanish v.消失,不复存在
3.reputation n.名声,名望
4.slack adj.懈怠的,懒散的
5.outrage n./v.暴行;激怒,引起……义愤
6.underlying adj.潜在的,含蓄的
7.assumption n.假定,设想
8.grievance n.怨愤,不平;抱怨
9.good-natured 和蔼的,和善的
10.counterpart n.极相似的人或物,对应的人或物
11.candidate n.候选人,应试者
12.token n.象征的东西,代币
13.adjoining adj.连着的
14.in return for作为(对…….的)交换/报答/回报
15.markedly adv.显著地,明显地
16.toss v.扔,抛
17.resentment n.愤恨,怨恨
18.righteous adj.正当的,正直的,公正的
19.preserve v.保存,保护
20.reward n.报酬,奖金
21.evolve v.逐渐形成,进化
22.stem from 源于……,由….造成
三、阅读答案:c b a c b
四、全文翻译:?
????????人人都喜欢丰厚的加薪,但是当你得知一位同事薪水加得比你还要多的时候,那么加薪带给你的喜悦就消失得无影无踪了。事实上,如果他还有懒散的名声的话,你甚至变得义愤填膺。这样的行为被看作是“人之常情”,它潜在的假定是其他动物不可能有这种高度发达的不满意识。但是由佐治亚州亚特兰大埃里莫大学的萨拉·布鲁斯南和弗兰·德·瓦尔进行的一项研究却表明,它也是“猴之常情”。
????????这项研究成果刚刚发表在《自然》杂志上。研究者们对雌性棕色卷尾猴的行为进行了研究。这些猴子看起来很可爱,她们生性温和,乐于合作,并且乐意分享食物。最重要的是,像人类女性一样,它们往往比雄性更注重“物品和服务”的价值。这些特点使它们成为布鲁斯南博士和德·瓦尔博士理想的研究对象。两位研究人员花了两年时间教这些猴子用代币换取食物。正常情况下,猴子非常乐意用石块交换黄瓜片。但是,当两只猴子被安置在隔开但相邻的两个房间里,能够互相看见对方用石块换回来什么东西时,猴子的行为就会变得明显不同。
????????在卷尾猴的世界里,葡萄是奢侈品(比黄瓜受欢迎得多)。所以当一只猴子用一个代币换回一颗葡萄时,第二只猴子就不愿意用自己的代币只换回一片黄瓜。如果一只猴子根本无须用代币就能够得到一颗葡萄的话,那么另一只猴子就会将代币掷向研究人员
2005年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第一篇】插图
或者扔出房间外,或者拒绝接受那片黄瓜。事实上,只要在另一房间出现了葡萄(不管有没有猴子吃它),都足以引起雌卷尾猴的怨恨。
????????研究人员指出,正如人类一样,卷尾猴也受社会情感的支配。在野外,它们是协作、群居的物种。只有当每只猴子都感到自己没有受到欺骗时,这种合作才可能稳定。不公平而引起的愤怒感似乎不是人类的专利。拒绝接受较少的酬劳可以让这些情绪准确无误地传达给其他成员。但是这种公平感是在卷尾猴和人类身上各自独立演化而成,还是来自三千五百万年前他们共同的祖先,这至今还是一个有待回答的问题。

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